Vast amounts of data streams and information needed to be analyzed, combined and actioned upon, creating a complexity that goes far beyond mere human management. Ericsson and Telstra have come up with a proposed coordination center of the future that empowers decision-making.
Energy efficiency features are being integrated in network protocols and management systems. Simulations can provide input on how a particular algorithm would perform in different network conditions. However, building an environment that is able to comprehensively account for interactions between different network functions is difficult.
The IP (Internet Protocol) core network operated by TeliaSonera in Sweden has been studied according to a described definition (system boundary) and extrapolated to a national level for Sweden. A top-down and a bottom-up data collection approach have been used to quantify network equipment and energy consumption. The electricity consumption of the IP core network was about one fourth of the total energy consumption of the connected mobile and fixed access networks. The use stage results for the Swedish IP core network is about 0.08 kWh per GB (Gigabyte) of data traffic corresponding to about 19 g CO2e/GB when applying a Swedish electricity mix. If instead a global average electricity mix is used, the resulting greenhouse gas emission would be about 64 g CO2e/GB. A method is also proposed where the amount of data traffic is used to allocate the IP core network on different usage. The method is exemplified by the 3G mobile broadband data traffic in Sweden.
There is a need for verification of the sustainability potential of an increasing number of smart city initiatives. This paper discuss a set of requirements necessary to consider when developing a methodology intended to evaluate the environmental and socioeconomic sustainability impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions at a city level. A smart city definition is chosen and a model of the city is proposed, dividing the city into service sectors where ICT solutions are expected to be implemented. Requirements on a quantitative methodology for assessing the sustainability potential of ICT solutions in cities are listed, including transparency in selection of city boundary and results, and the importance of setting realistic scenarios and using publicly available data. The methodology activities presented include defining system boundaries, building scenarios and assessing the solution at a city level, and scaling the solution between cities.
The presented LCA-based method can be used when assessing the potential CO2e emission reduction from introducing an ICT-based service. The method was used to analyze the CO2e emissions from the communication networks in Sweden as well as on the effects of introducing smart work solutions at TeliaSonera. For TeliaSonera the CO2e reductions resulting from smart work sum up to about 40% per employee, or over 2.8 ton CO2e per employee and year. The total reduction potential due to smart work in the world was estimated to be 2 % - 4% of global CO2e emissions, if reductions of 20% - 40% can be achieved per employee in a 10 - 20 year timeframe.