The security challenge requires all key stakeholders; vendors, operators, developers, governments, and users to do their part to ensure security. Global standards and best practices are fundamental to the efficient handling of threats as well as to building economies of scale, avoiding fragmentation, and ensuring interoperability. Trust and security in the continued digital transformation of industries are critical for industry and society to fully benefit from ICT, Industry 4.0 and IoT. 5G is the future platform for industrial transformation. Security is one of its core design features.
Minimum-security requirements for IoT devices are necessary and should mainly be implemented through voluntary market mechanisms and by mandatory certification in specific areas. Source-code disclosure of civilian use of ICT is disproportionate and increases the threat of sophisticated cyber-attacks.