IoT: technologies and applications for a new age of intelligence – our second edition
In 2014, we published our book From M2M to IoT, which is now in its second edition. The four years between these books might not seem like a long time, but it’s clear that since then, technology has developed significantly, and IoT has grown from something for the interested few to a mainstream transformative enabler for virtually any industry or sector of the global economy.
The publication of this book marks 14 years since we in Ericsson started our initial internal research on what would eventually become the Internet of Things. Back then the term 'IoT' was limited to the use of RFID tags, and was far from the much wider and grander meaning it has today – of an Internet where the physical world of things and places are fully integrated.
We started the research by participating in a proposal for an EU research project on Wireless Sensor Networks called Reconfigurable Ubiquitous Network Embedded Systems (RUNES). It turned out we were very early for the industry, as IoT momentum didn't start picking up until almost 10 years later. A strong belief in its long-term potential and a fair amount of perseverance were two of the main driving forces behind the team striving to develop IoT as a mainstream business focus for Ericsson.
European research projects such as SENSEI, IoT-I, CityPulse, as well as internal and external research projects with universities and other early adopter companies kept the fire alive in anticipation of building business. An outcome of that work was the widely used Ericsson vision of "50 billion connected devices" (which was picked up by others as if it were their own – no names mentioned).
Our ambition with the first edition of the book was to deliver something that wasn't available back then – a comprehensive book that could explain IoT to newcomers, covering its background, its rich set of technologies, standards, architectures and use cases. Since so much has happened in technology since 2014, last year, together with Cathy Mulligan, Stamatis Karnouskos and David Boyle, we embarked on the much-needed update of the book.
It's now time to celebrate the second edition, titled Internet of Things: Technologies and Applications for a New Age of Intelligence.
In the first edition, we aimed to describe the transition from Machine to Machine to an Internet of Things - an evolved world where the term IoT captured the future state. Five years later, the second edition includes only a few traces of the term M2M.
We acknowledge that IoT is an amalgamation of different disciplines, such as Cyber-Physical Systems, Wireless Sensor Networks, M2M and Big Data/Artificial Intelligence (AI) into a singular context of a real-world Internet. Over the years, the ecosystem has grown exponentially, and today it naturally includes not only players in the IT domain, but also OT – Operational Technology – the name used for technologies associated with monitoring and control of physical devices and processes in manufacturing and industrial environments. Any major IT or OT player in the market now are at a disadvantage if they do not have supporting products or services based on IoT.
IoT has grown from almost being a hobbyist or enthusiast-driven "weekend project" community to being a major industrial application area for traditional industries, such as manufacturing, automotive, and utilities. This is an upgrade from "connecting stuff" to making them smart via cloud-based applications. Its influence has now spread to nearly every imaginable enterprise. The growth of the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) and the development of Industry 4.0 are evidence of this.
It is the evolution of the potential economic impact from IoT and how technologies have emerged and matured that called for the second edition. The book has gone through a complete revision, meaning updated chapters and the inclusion of completely new material. This includes the aforementioned origins of IoT, an introduction to the economic impact of IoT and an outlook on what the future could bring.
We have entirely new material on distributed ledgers, edge computing, distributed cloud, machine learning (ML) and AI for IoT. We also cover IoT's shift from enthusiast, home automation projects to large-scale industrial deployments, which are reflected in market considerations and use cases, including autonomous vehicles, cyber-physical systems and logistics.
Standards and alliances have evolved. In the book, we cover the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) in some depth, which faced an exponential increase in the number of IoT-related working groups. We cover Open Mobile Alliance, which introduced the Lightweight M2M (LwM2M) framework and integrated the IP for the Smart Objects Alliance into its working groups. We discuss the birth of the IIC, which brought together the majority of the big industrial players into the IoT arena. We also describe the birth of Industry 4.0, and how the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) introduced the Web of Things specifications.
A new set of sections have been added to the chapters on architecture, to juxtapose research IoT architectures and the current state of industrial IoT architectures (with the inclusion of the IIC Reference Architecture).
A much-needed addition was the chapter on security, which provides an overview of IoT security threats and mitigations, security architectures and standards, and safety and privacy within IoT.
We hope that you'll find this second edition of interest and up-to-date with the latest developments. We've also noticed that the first edition is used as a text book as part of university curricula. If you're using the first edition, and /or planning to use the second edition for university courses, please get in touch with either of us on LinkedIn! We're eager to receive feedback.
Front cover reproduced with permission from Elsevier.